Shabtis and  ancient Egypt
The Shabti Collections
The Amasis Collection
SHABTIS A Private View
Glenn Janes
Untitled Document

The history and development of shabtis
1. Louis Speleers Les Figurines Funéraires Égyptiennes, Brussels, 1923
2. W. M. Flinders Petrie Shabtis, London 1935
A catalogue of shabtis in the Egyptian Collection of University College, London, with several short chapters describing the development of the figurines.
3. J.–F. and L. Aubert Statuettes Égyptiennes: Chaouabtis, Ouchebtis, Paris, 1974
4. Hans. D. Schneider Shabtis – An Introduction to the History of Ancient Egyptian Funerary Statuettes, with a Catalogue of the Collection of Shabtis in the National Museum of Leiden 3 vols., Leiden, 1977
A monumental work that can never be surpassed.
5. Harry Stewart Egyptian Shabtis, London, 1995
6. John Taylor in Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, London, 2001

Catalogues of shabtis in museums
1. P. E. Newberry Funerary Statuettes and Model Sarcophagi 3 vols., Cairo, 1930–57
2. J.–L. Chappaz Figurines funéraires égyptiennes du Musée d’art et d’histoire et de quelques collections privées, Geneva, 1982
3. J.–C. Grenier Les statuettes funéraires du Museo gregoriano egizio, Vatican, 1996
4. H. Schlögl and A. Brodbeck Ägyptische Totenfiguren aus Öffentlichen und Privaten Sammlungen der Schweiz, Göttingen, 1990
5. H. Schlögl Corpus der Ägyptischen Totenfiguren der Öffentlichen Sammlungen Krakaus, Crakow, 2000
6. H. Schlögl Die ägyptischen Totenfiguren, Poznan, 2006
7. J.–L. Bovot Les serviteurs funéraires royaux et princiers de l’Ancienne Égypte, Paris, 2003
8. J.–F. Aubert and L. Aubert Statuettes funéraires égyptiennes du département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques, Paris, 2005
9. W. M. van Haarlem Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum - Allard Pierson Museum, Amsterdam 2 vols., Mainz, 1990
10. E. Reiser–Haslauer Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum - Ushebti (Vienna)  2 vols., Mainz, 1990
11. S–A Naguib Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum - Funerary Statuettes (Oslo), Mainz, 1985
12. B. Schlick–Nolte and V. von Droste zu Hülschoff Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum - Ushebtis (Darmstadt, Frankfurt and Mainz), Mainz, 1984
13. H. Schlögl and C. Meves–Schlögl Uschebti – Arbeiter im Ägyptischen Totenreich (Freiburg, Hinterzarten, Karlsruhe and Zurich), Wiesbaden, 1993 
14. C. A. Gama-Rolland Os servidores funerarios do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Saarbrucken, 2015
15. G. Cavillier Catalogo degli Ushabti del Museuo Egizio di Firenze, 3 vols., Oxford, 2009, 2016 & 2017
16. T. Kohl Diener fur die Ewigkeit - Die Uschebti-Sammlung im Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim, Hildesheim, 2018
17. J. Uriach !Aqui Estamos! Estatuillas funerarias egipcias de algunas colecciones de Barcelona (Barcelona, 2020)

Numerous museum and exhibition catalogues have chapters devoted to shabtis in their collections or displays, but they are too numerous to be included in this brief overview. Museums are increasingly making their shabti collections available on the internet, for example Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery where Phil Watson published an online catalogue, also including shabtis from Warwick and Worcester.

Books about specific types and periods of shabtis, or those coming from specific provenances
1. H. Sottas Statuettes Funéraires de la XVIII Dynastie, Paris, 1922 
2. D. Valbelle Ouchebtis de Deir el–Medineh, Cairo, 1972 
3. L. M. de Araújo Estatuetas Funerárias Egípcias da XXI Dinastia, Lisbon, 2003)
4. L. Aubert Les statuettes funéraires de la Deuxième Cachette à Deir el–Bahari, Paris, 1998
5. J.-L Bovot Les serviteurs funeraires royaux et princiers de l'Ancienne Egypte, Paris, 2003
6. P. Whelan Mere Scraps of Rough Wood? 17th–18th Dynasty Stick Shabtis in the Petrie Museum and other Collections, London, 2007
7. J. Moje The Ushebtis From Early Excavations in the Necropolis of Asyut, Mainly by David George Hogarth and Ahmed Bey Kamal, Wiesbaden, 2013
8. M. Zarli The Tomb of the Priests of Amun - Burial Assemblages in the Egyptian Museum of Florence ed. Rogerio Sousa, Leiden, 2018

An outstanding Dutch private collection of shabtis, amulets, scarabs and other pieces.
A unique illustrated catalogue of shabtis in European private collections.  The book also includes a CD-ROM enabling the photographic illustrations in the catalogue to be displayed and viewed at high resolution and enlarged for closer inspection.
3. Catalogues on shabtis to be found in museums in the north west of England – West Park Museum, Macclesfield (2010), Warrington Museum & Art Gallery (2011), Rochdale Arts & Heritage Service (2011), Stockport Museums (2012), a selection from the Manchester Museum (2012), and a selection from World Museum, Liverpool (2016)

articles for various Egyptology journals 
1. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (London)
2. Chronique d’Égypte (Brussels)
3. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte (Cairo)
4. Göttinger Miszellen (Göttingen)
5. Oudhedeidkundige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Leiden)
6. Kemi: Revue de Philologie et d’Archéologie Égyptiennes et Coptes (Paris)
7. Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale (Paris)
8. Bulletin de la Société d’egyptologie de Genéve (Geneva)
9. Revue d’Égyptologie (Paris)

DETAILS OF Shabtis in private collections 
1. J. Haynes Privately owned Egyptian Antiquities in Ontario Fascicle I – Shabtis, Ontario, 1983 
2. S. Deker Uschebti – ägyptische Dienerfiguren einer deutschen Privatsammlung, Kempen, 2005
3. H. Schlögl Geschichte und Wege, Berlin, 2012
4. N. de Haan Dutch Private Collections of Egyptian Antiquities, vol. 1 - The Shabtis (printed for private circulation), Voorhout, 2016
5.. Loffet La Collection Emmacha, 2 vols., Paris 2017

outstanding monographs on specific shabtis  
1. N. de Haan and I. Waanders Psamtek son of Mery–Neith, Voorhout, 2013) 
2. M. Gundlach Typology and artisanship in Twenty–Fifth Dynasty Theban shabtis: The Chief Lector Priest Pedamenope, Swansea University, 2013 as yet unpublished
3. P. Raedschelders De Shabti van Pinudjem II (printed for private cuirculation (Antwerp, 2015)

1. The Louvre mounted a special exhibition about funerary statuettes – Chaouabtis – in 2003, seemingly the only exhibition of such objects ever to be held until that date. This was accompanied by a book on shabtis by J.–L. Bovot (Chaouabtis – Des travailleurs pharaoniques pour l’éternité, Paris, 2003).
2. There was small exhibition about shabtis in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff but details are not fully known.
3. The Manchester Museum mounted an exhibition - Shabtis: Suspended Truth in Context - in 2017 that included shabtis from the Kemehu Collection and also the so-called nu-shabtis that are the work of the outstanding Syrian sculptor Zahed Tajeddin. The exhibition was accompanied by a small booklet on the work of Tajeddin and included a brief overview of shabtis.

1. The recently updated website of Niek de Haan  proves an outstanding resource for anyone interested in shabtis and has downloadable scholarly publications on shabtis for Nesypernub, Mehytweskhet, Nesipaoutytauoy, Horudja, son of Khausienhap, WahibrameryPtah, son of Iretiru, Khayt, Hori I (II), Tayuheret, Pinudjem II, NesyKhonsu, MaatkaRa, NesiBastet, DjedPtahiwefankh, Pasen, Hor, and Tentipet.
2. An important website that has also been recently enlarged is by Dik van Bommel It gives in–depth details of chronology, dating, and the iconographical development of shabtis. The website also gives an invaluable overview of the shabtis that originate from the Bab el-Gasus tomb at Deir el-Bahari, also known as Cache II and The Priests of Amen Cache.
3. There is also an excellent website for Spanish speaking enthusiasts by Moises Gonzalez Sucías that contains superb 3D images of shabtis as well as a list of online publications, and a huge image library.
4. British Museum, London (suggested keyword: shabti)
5. Brooklyn Museum, New York (shabty, ushabti, shawabti or shabti)
6. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio (shawabti)
7. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (shabti, shawabti)
8. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (shabti, ushabti, shawabti)
9. Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan 
10.The Louvre, Paris (ouchebti)
11.The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London (shabti)
12. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (shabti)
13. The Egypt Centre, University of Swansea (shabti)
14. Museo Egizio, Turin (shabti)
15. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden (oesjebti)
16.World Museum, Liverpool (shabti)

An essential resource is the database compiled by Jean-Luc Chappaz that provides a regularly updated source for finding parallel shabtis:
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